Eight identical operant chambers (interior dimensions: 21.6 × 17.8 × 12.7 cm; ENV-307 W, Med Associates, Inc., Fairfax, VT, USA), enclosed in sound-attenuating cubicles (ENV-022 V, Med Associates) were used. The chambers were controlled by Med-PC IV software (Med Associates). The side walls were made from aluminium and the front and back walls and the ceiling were made from clear Perspex. The chamber floors each comprised a grid of 24 stainless steel rods (0.32 cm diameter), spaced 0.79 cm apart and running perpendicular to the front of the chamber (ENV-307W-GFW, Med Associates). A fan (ENV-025F, Med Associates) was located within each of the cubicles and was turned on during sessions. Retractable sippers (ENV-352AW, Med Associates) and a small hole in one wall of each chamber allowed sipper tubes to be extended into, and retracted from, the chambers. Contact lickometer controllers (ENV-250, Med Associates) allowed contacts between the mice and the sipper tubes to be recorded at a resolution of 0.01 s. Sucrose solutions were made w/v with commercially available sucrose in distilled water. Cherry and grape Kool-Aid, 0.05%wt/vol, (Kraft Foods., Rye Brook, NY) were used as the CS+ and CS– flavours.

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