Raw.CEL files of the microarray from each GEO dataset were normalized by quantile method of Robust Multichip Analysis (RMA) from R affy package 20. Gene expression of PIGR between tumor and nontumor tissues was performed by R Limma package 21. Series datasets with expression profiling by array was searched by gene name “PIGR” in GEO database, and GSE34630 22 profile was used for gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) by GSEA software 23.

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