We searched using PUBMED, OVID, and EMBASE databases from inception to July 2020 for observational studies. The studies included cohort, cross-sectional, and case-control studies describing the association between the risk factors or correlates for low BMD in OST patients. We had limited our searches to the English language. We used the following search terms: (“opioid” OR “opioids” OR “opiate” OR “opiates” OR “methadone” OR “buprenorphine”) AND (“osteoporosis” OR “osteopenia” OR “bone mass” OR “bone mineral density” OR “BMD”). The search strategy for each database can be referred to as Figure Figure11.

Search strategies for all databases.

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