We included all patients on OST treatments, which included patients receiving MMT and BMT. All patients must be at least 18 years old. No restriction in terms of sex and ethnicity. MMT is defined as a patient receiving methadone therapy for an indication of opioid use disorder or opioid addiction. BMT is defined as a patient receiving buprenorphine therapy for the indication of opioid use disorder or opioid addiction. We excluded the use of opioids for both cancer and non-cancer pain.

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