The correlations between continuous variables were investigated by Spearman correlation analysis. Gene set variation analysis (GSVA) was conducted as previously described 25. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis of the most related genes was constructed by Heatmap. The GO gene set was obtained from the AmiGO 2 Web portal (http://amigo.geneontology.org/amigo/landing). Inflammatory-related metagenes were selected as described previously 26,27. The metagene expression values were determined by assessing the mean of the normalized expression values of all genes in a respective cluster 27. The Tumor IMmune Estimation Resource (TIMER) database (https://cistrome.shinyapps.io/timer/) was applied to estimate the abundance of immune infiltrates and the correlations between HSF5 expression and the gene markers of immune cells. The online database Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis (GEPIA) (http://gepia.cancer-pku.cn/index.html) was used to further validate the significantly correlated genes in TIMER.

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