Murine endothelial cells (SVEC 4–10) was purchased from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC, Manassas, VA, USA). The cells were grown in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM; Hyclone, Chicago, IL, USA) supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS; Merck Millipore, OH, USA) and 1% penicillin streptomycin (Hyclone). Murine vascular smooth muscle cells (MOVAS) were also purchased from the ATCC and grown in DMEM (Hyclone) supplemented with 10% FBS (Merck Millipore) and antibiotics 0.2 mg/ml G-418 (Sigma-Aldrich, Burlington, MA, USA). Murine macrophages (Raw 264.7) were purchased from the Korea Cell Line Bank (Seoul, Korea). The cells were grown in DMEM supplemented with 10% FBS and 1% penicillin streptomycin.

The SVEC 4–10, MOVAS and Raw 264.7 cells were treated with 20 mM salt or 20 mM GABA-salt at the same concentrations used in the animal experiment. The salt and GABA-salt were dissolved in cell culture medium and stored at –4°C.

To make M1 macrophage activation model, 1M refined salt (Hanju Corp.) solution which solved in distilled water is prepared. The salt solution was mixed and diluted with the media up to 20 mM concentration. Then the cell was incubated in culture plate for 4 days and harvested for experiments.

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