Male C57BL/6N mice (7-week old) were purchased from Orient Bio (Seongnam, Korea) and maintained under controlled conditions (23°C, 50% of humidity), and a 12/12 h dark/light cycle. The mice were fed either normal chow diet (ND) or a HCD (Harlan Laboratories, Indianapolis, IN, USA) for 5 weeks. Considering that GABA contains 0.76% of GABA-salt, mice were orally administered eating water with ND (ND group), salt with HCD (HCD/salt group; 0.03 mg/kg/day) or GABA-salt with HCD (HCD/GABA-salt group; 0.034 mg/kg/day) during the same 5 weeks.

After this 5-week feeding period, we measured water intake, urine volume and serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and mice were sacrificed in accordance with guideline issued by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of Gachon University (approval number: LCDI-2018-0066). In additional, we measured systolic, diastolic, and mean artery pressure at 3, 4, and 5 weeks. The BPs were monitored using a non-invasive tail-cuff CODA system (Kent Scientific Corp., Torrington, CT, USA) according to the manufacturer’s directions.

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