To begin to understand potential side effects caused by COVID‐19 treatments, we considered four drugs currently under investigation: LP, RT, CQ, and AZ, as well as the former two and the latter two drugs in combination. We selected these four drugs for initial analysis because their effects on cardiac ionic currents have been assessed under standardized conditions. Crumb et al. 16 have reported effective free therapeutic plasma concentrations (EFTPCs) for each drug in addition to half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values that indicate the affinity of each drug to block the following cardiac ionic currents: (i) fast Na+ current; (ii) late Na+ current; (iii) transient outward K+ current; (iv) rapid delayed rectifier K+ current; (v) slow delayed rectifier K+ current; (vi) inward rectifier K+ current; and (vii) L‐type Ca2+ current. This publication 16 also estimated Hill coefficients for each drug‐channel combination. This unified data source was exploited for QSP model simulations of drug effects (see below). IC50 values and estimated Hill coefficients are shown in Table S1 .

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