For categorical variables (source, province, ESBL type), we used count and percentages of the group from which they were derived. AMR rate was calculated as the percentage of isolates that showed resistance to certain antimicrobials. The relative ratio of ESBL genotypes was defined as the percentage of the total. The prevalence or positive rate of ESBL-EC isolates was derived by comparing the number of samples with ESBL-EC with the total number of samples studied and was expressed as a percentage. Multiple samples from the same swine were calculated as one sample, and the swine was defined to be ESBLpositive even if only one sample from it was positive (nose, skin at groin region, rectum, and stool). Chi-square test was used for the comparative analysis of categorical variables using IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows software version 23.0 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, USA). Statistical significance of the results was defined at P < 0.05.

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