Rapamycin, LY294002, FPS-ZM1 and U0126 were purchased from Selleck Chemicals (Houston, TX, USA) and recombinant human HMGB1 (rhHMGB1) was provided by Sigma-Aldrich (Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany). Human HMGB1 ELISA kits were purchased from CUSABIO (Wuhan, China), EdU proliferation detection kits were purchased from RiboBio Co., Ltd. (Guangzhou, China), primary antibodies against β-actin, p-Akt (Ser473), Akt, p-mTOR (Ser2448), mTOR, p-P70S6K (Thr421/Ser424), P70S6K, p-S6 (Ser240/244), S6, p-ERK (Thr202/Tyr204), ERK, p-P90RSK (Ser380), P90RSK-1, p-CREB (Ser133s), CREB, cyclin D1, cyclin E1, TLR2 and RAGE were purchased from Cell Signalling Technology (Beverly, MA, USA). HMGB1 antibody was purchased from AbCam (Cambridge, UK) and TLR4 antibody was provided by ABclonal Biotechnology Co., Ltd (Wuhan, China). E-cadherin, N-cadherin, MMP-9 and MMP-2 antibodies were obtained from Santa Cruz Biotechnology (Dallas, TX, USA). Secondary antibodies coupled to IRDye800 fluorophore for use with the Odyssey Infrared Imaging System were purchased from LI-COR Biosciences (Lincoln, Nebraska, USA). Horseradish peroxidase-conjugated anti-mouse IgG and anti-rabbit IgG secondary antibodies were obtained from Cell Signaling Technology (Beverly, MA, USA).

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