Ribonucleic acid (RNA) was extracted using TRIzol reagent (15596026, Thermo Fisher Scientific) and used to generate cDNA. After the complementary deoxynucleic acid (cDNA) was generated, an appropriate amount was taken for qPCR using the PrimeScript RT Master Mix (RR036A, TaKaRa, Japan). The reaction volume was 20 µL. The qPCR conditions were 95°C for 30 seconds and 40 cycles of 95°C for 5 seconds and 60°C for 30 seconds. A dissociation step was used to generate a dissolution profile and confirm whether the amplification was specific. Relative gene expression was calculated using the 2-ΔΔCt method using GAPDH or U1 as controls. The primer sequences were as follows: CASC8 forward, 5'-TGGCATGGACCAGGAGCACTAG-3′, and reverse, 5′-GGACTTGCCGGTAACCTAGATTGG-3′; U1 small nuclear 1 (RNU1-1) forward, 5'-ACCCCTGCGATTTCCCCAAA-3′, and reverse, 5′-CAGGGGAAAGCGCGAACG-3′; GAPDH forward, 5′-GGAGCGAGATCCCTCCAAAAT -3′, and reverse, 5′-GGCTGTTGTCATACTTCTCATGG-3′; and FOXM1 forward, 5′-GATCTGCGAGATTTTGGTACAC-3′, and reverse, 5′-CTGCAGAAGAAAGAGGAGCTAT-3′.

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