Tumors and corresponding normal tissues were collected from patients seen between 2015 and 2019 at the First Hospital Affiliated of China Medical University; the corresponding normal tissue samples were obtained from a location at least 5 cm away from the tumor tissue. The Chinese Medical University Institutional Review Committee approved the study, and all patients provided informed consent. Patients who participated in the study did not receive radiation therapy or chemotherapy before surgery. The clinical prognostic data involved in this study were provided by the Kaplan Meier-plotter database (https://kmplot.com/analysis/).

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