The preoperative stage was determined by contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) of the chest, abdomen and pelvis. The original pathologic TNM stages of patients in the databases were based on the 6th and 7th AJCC on Cancer staging system. The original pathological reports were reviewed by clinician, and then modified all the pathologic stages according to the 8th edition 8. Adjuvant chemotherapy was administered to patients after histological evaluation of the surgical specimen according to the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines. Postoperative follow-up was performed every 3-6 months for the first 3 years, then every 12 months from years 4 to 5. The routine patient follow-up appointments included a physical examination, laboratory tests, chest radiography, abdominal ultrasonography, CT or positron emission computed tomography (PETCT) and an annual endoscopic examination. CT was the most frequently used imaging method, including chest, abdomen and pelvis with intravenous contrast. Diagnosis of recurrence was based on new lesions on CT, PETCT or histological confirmation through biopsy.

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