18F-FDG PET/CT scanning was performed according to the European Association of Nuclear Medicine Research Ltd (EARL) guidelines version 1.0 24 and additional local protocols, most of which have become standard of care with the EARL guidelines version 2.0 25. 18F-FDG PET/CT scans were performed using a mCT scanner (Siemens/CTI, Knoxville, TN). A protocol with 3 dimensional mode, 1-3 min emission time per bed position dependent on patient weight, 2 mm spatial resolution and a non-contrast enhanced low dose CT scan for attenuation correction were used. Reconstruction was performed using a Gaussian filter of 6.5 mm in full width at half maximum and iterative reconstruction methods with 3 iterations and 21 subsets.

The non-diabetic patients fasted for at least 6 h before intravenous administration of 18F-FDG. Known insulin-independent T2DM patients complied with the standard fasting protocol and continued oral anti-diabetic drugs. Known insulin-dependent T2DM patients had a meal and their normal insulin dose at least 4 h before 18F-FDG administration and then fasted until the end of the procedure.

Before injecting 18F-FDG, the fasting serum glucose level was measured by calibrated venous blood sampling (Accu-Chek Inform II, Roche, Basel, Switzerland). These fasting serum glucose levels and the patient records were available for all patients. Scans were rescheduled in cases when the patient's fasting serum glucose level was >11 mmol/L. Patients were injected with 3 MBq/kg 18F-FDG 60 min before scanning.

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