All resected specimens were reviewed by two pathologists to evaluate the pathological response to neoadjuvant treatment and the extent of the residual disease. The pathological tumor staging was determined according to the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) TNM Staging Classification for Carcinoma of the Stomach, 8th edition. A complete pathological response (pCR) was considered when no evidence of residual tumor was found in the surgical specimen (ypT0N0). The histological grade of tumor regression was classified based on the Mandard tumor regression grade (TRG) 12.

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