Human embryonic kidney 293T cells and 4 RCC cell lines, ACHN, A498, Caki-1, and 786-O, were purchased from the Type Culture Collection of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Shanghai, China). Cells were cultured in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) (Gibco, Grand Island, NY, USA) supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) (Gibco, Grand Island, NY, USA), 100 µl/ml penicillin, and 100 mg/ml streptomycin. All the cells were incubated at 37 °C in a 5% CO2 atmosphere.

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