Normalized RNA sequencing data sets were obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database (, comprising estimated fragments per kilobase of transcript per million mapped reads from 39 non-tumour samples and 398 tumour samples. Clinical data were also derived from TCGA, including age, gender, TNM classification, and pathological staging. Autophagy gene data were downloaded from the Human Autophagy Database (HADb;, and an autophagy-related gene expression matrix was extracted from the mRNA matrix. Then, the “limma” package in the R software was used to for co-expression analysis of the expression matrix for autophagy-related genes and the lncRNA matrix, and autophagy-related lncRNAs were obtained. Pearson correlation analysis was used to calculate correlations between the autophagy-related genes and lncRNAs. A correlation coefficient > 0.3 and P < 0.001 were considered to indicate significance.

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