The CMap, a huge database containing 7000 expression profiles of human cell lines treated with more than 1300 compounds, was exploited to speculate on drug responses after overexpression of particular genes. Five hundred of the most and least highly expressed genes from the cDNA microarray of ampullary cancer were input to CMap to predict potential drugs. To reveal meaningful biological connections of the gene list, the gene-signature perturbation approach was performed in the present study 33,34. A two-sided t-test was applied to classify the effectiveness of compounds for differential gene expressions. Chemicals with a negative correlation with ampullary cancer were classified by a standardized connection score, perturbation stability, and p value.

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