All patients' baseline characteristic and surgical details as well as pathological features were carefully reviewed. Enhanced imaging examination including ultrasonography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging were used to preoperatively assess the tumor size, location, invasion of portal vein, bile duct or hepatic arteries and presence of intro-hepatic or extra-hepatic metastases in all patients. Patients with Child-Pugh class A liver function and performance status score less than 2 were eligible for surgical resection. Surgical methods were assessed by preoperative multidisciplinary team discussion. In the present study, hypersplenia was diagnosed by: i) enlarged spleen (thickness of spleen was more than 4cm in ultrasonography); ii) peripheral cytopenias, including the decreasing of red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets. Major liver resection was defined as more than two segments resection while the minor liver resection was considered as ≤2 segments resection. All enrolled patients had routine follow-up at first month and every 6 month subsequently until May 2020. The primary endpoint of this study was overall survival (OS) and OS was calculated from the time receiving surgery to the time of death or May 2020. The second end point was disease-free survival (DFS) which was defined as the duration between surgical resection and recurrence or metastasis.

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