Thirty-two newly diagnosed RCC patients (20 males and 12 females; age range, 31-63 years; median age, 52 years) who had been scheduled for surgery in Qilu Hospital between June 2016 and October 2018 were enrolled in our research. RCC patients with other cancers or autoimmune diseases, including Crohn's disease, psoriasis, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) were not included in our research. No patient had received anticancer therapy before the operation. Physical examination and computed tomography (CT)/ magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used for clinical staging. Tumors were classified and staged according to the American Joint Committee on Cancer's tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) classification system (Edition 8). Stages I-II and III-IV were regarded as early and advanced stages of the disease, respectively. The tumor grade was assigned according to the WHO/ISUP grading system. The critical clinical information of the RCC patients is given in Table Table1.1. Thirty healthy controls (17 males and 13 females; age range, 23-49 years; median age, 28 years) were also enrolled in our research. This study was approved by the Medical Ethical Committee of Qilu Hospital of Shandong University. According to the Declaration of Helsinki, informed consent was obtained from all patients before participating in this research.

Clinical characteristics of the Study Subjects

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