Astrocytes were plated into six-well plates at a density of 5×105 cells per well. When cells reached 90% confluence, they were pretreated with or without M2-sEVs (10 μg/mL). After 24 h of treatment, a scratch was made through the confluent monolayer using a sterile 200 μL plastic micropipette tip. Cells were washed twice with PBS and then subjected to OGD followed by re-oxygenation. The scratch gap area was viewed 24 h later under a microscope (Leica, Solms, Germany).

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