Cell growth was determined using the Cell Counting Kit-8 Solution (Dojindo, Kumamoto, Japan). Briefly, astrocytes were plated into 96-well plates at a density of 1×104 cells per well. When the cells reached 60% confluence, they were pretreated with or without M2-sEVs (10 μg/mL) for 24 h. The cells were then subjected to OGD for 3 h and re-oxygenation for another 24 h. Thereafter, the culture medium was replaced with DMEM containing 10% CCK-8 solution, and cells were incubated for 2 h at 37 °C in 5% CO2. The absorbance at 450 nm was measured using a microplate reader (BioTek, Winooski, VT).

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