The pressure overload mouse model was built by TAC. To exclude the influence of estrogen, we chose male mice to perform TAC in the present study. Adult male mice, aged 8-10 weeks, were anesthetized with isoflurane, artificially ventilated, and then the aortic arch was separated and ligated by 6-0 nylon suture with a blunted 27-gauge needle to ensure the degree of narrowing. The needle was later pulled out. The sham group was subjected to the same surgical procedure except ligating the transverse aorta. Further analyses were performed at different time points after TAC. Echocardiography analysis was performed on all mice prior to sham or TAC operation.

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