Differences among the treatment groups were assessed via ANOVA using statistical software (SPSS, IBM, USA). The significance of differences between groups was estimated by Student's t-test, Wilcoxon test, as appropriate. The survival rates were calculated by the Kaplan-Meier, univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards model. Two-sided p-values were calculated, and a probability level of 0.05 was chosen for statistical significance. The data were expressed as mean ± SD of at least three separate experiments.

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