The lentivirus-mediated gene overexpression and the knockdown vector system were purchased from Han Biotechnology (Shanghai, China) with lentiviral vectors carrying FLAG and puromycin tags. Cells were seeded in 6-well culture plates before the lentivirus was applied. Empty lentiviruses served as the negative control and non-infected cells served as the control group. After 48 h, cells were cultured in 5 μg/mL of puromycin to screen for cell lines which stabilize differential gene expression i.e., overexpression and down-expression. Gene expressions were verified through RT-PCR and western blotting. siRNAs were synthesized by Tsingke Biological Technology (Wuhan, China). Cells were transfected with siRNA using RNAimax (Invitrogen) according to the manufacturer's protocol. Oligo sequences are also provided in Table S1 of the supplementary materials.

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