All experiments were done at least in triplicate, and quantitative results are reported as means ± SD. Statistical analysis was conducted assuming normal distribution using GraphPad Prism v6.0 as detailed in the figure legends. Statistical differences in ELISA and qPCR results were determined by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey’s multiple comparisons test. Statistical differences in results comparing suppression of ERK, p38, and JNK signaling by various V. cholerae strains compared to the ACD active–only strain were determined using Student’s t tests.

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