Antibodies used in this study include phospho-p44/p42 MAPK (ERK1/2; Cell Signaling Technology, no. 4337S), p44/p42 MAPK (ERK1/2; Cell Signaling Technology, no. 4965S), phospho-p38 MAPK (Cell Signaling Technology, no. 9211S), p38 MAPK (Cell Signaling Technology, no. 9212S), phospho–stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK)/JNK (Cell Signaling Technology, no. 9255S), SAPK/JNK (Cell Signaling Technology, no. 9252S), vinculin (Cell Signaling Technology, no. 13901), IKBα (Cell Signaling Technology, no. 9242S), tubulin (Cell Signaling Technology, no. 2144), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (Santa Cruz Biotechnology, no. sc-25779), actin (Sigma-Aldrich, no. A2066), and LI-COR IRDye 800CW/680LT secondary antibodies (LI-COR, nos. 926-3221, 926-3211, 926-68070, and 926-68071). Chemical reagents used in this study were ERK MAPK inhibitor PD98059 (Cell Signaling Technology, no. 9900L), p38 MAPK inhibitor SB202190 (Cell Signaling Technology, no. S7067), JNK MAPK inhibitor SP600125 (Abcam, no. 120065), latrunculin A (Millipore, no. 428021), SMIFH2 (Fisher Scientific, no. 440110), and recombinant human TNF (R&D Systems, no. 210-TA-005/CF).

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