DNA damage was induced by treating cells with doxorubicin (500 nM or 1 μM) (Sigma-Aldrich) for 0 to 48 hours. mTOR was catalytically inhibited by treating cells with AZD8055 (100 nM) (Selleckchem), Torin 1 (100 nM) [Cell Signaling Technology (CST)], or rapamycin (100 nM) (CST) for 0 to 24 hours. Cells were treated with thapsigargin (250 nM) (Sigma-Aldrich) for 1 hour to induce ER stress and treated with ISRIB (200 nM) (Sigma-Aldrich) or trazodone (50 μM) (Sigma-Aldrich) to reverse the effects eIF2α phosphorylation.

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