Primary murine CD4+ T cells were cultured in RPMI 1640 (Invitrogen) supplemented with 10% heat-inactivated fetal bovine serum (FBS; Gibco), 20 mM Hepes (Gibco) (pH 7.4), 50 μM 2-mercaptoethanol, 2 mM l-glutamine (Gibco), and penicillin-streptomycin (10,000 U/ml; Gibco). Iscove’s modified Dulbecco’s medium (IMDM) (Sigma) was used instead of RPMI 1640 when IL-22 measurement was required. The PlatE cell line was cultured in Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium–GlutaMAX (Invitrogen) supplemented with 10% FBS and penicillin-streptomycin (10,000 U/ml). Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) buffer was prepared by mixing 3% heat-inactivated FBS with Dulbecco’s phosphate-buffered saline (Gibco). FICZ [6-formylindolo(3,2b)carbazole] and CH-223191 (Sigma) were used at 300 nM and 3 μM, respectively.

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