HeLa cells were grown to 60% confluency in six-well plates, media were changed to Opti-MEM (Gibco, UK) with or without the addition of noted single chain TNFα (scTNFα) (10 ng/ml) and incubated for 8 hours. Media was then removed and assayed using the Human Cytokine Array Proteome Profiler Array (R&D Systems, Abingdon, UK) according to manufacturer’s instructions. Samples were then analyzed for mean spot pixel intensity by densitometry, and resulting data were presented as fold change compared to untreated control samples.

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