Surface-sterilized seeds were sown onto petri dishes with half-strength MS medium, 1% sucrose, and 1% agar (pH 6.0) and stratified at 4°C for 5 days. Germination was induced by 16-hour light treatment at 22°C, and then the plates were covered with foil and held vertically to facilitate hypocotyl elongation. Photographs were taken after 48 hours. Hypocotyl lengths were measured from captured images using ImageJ software.

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