Total RNA was isolated from cells using the TRIzol reagent (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA, USA) according to the protocol provided by the manufacturer. RNA was dissolved in diethyl pyrocarbonate–treated water and reverse-transcribed using the SuperScript III First Strand Synthesis Super Mix Kit (Thermo Fisher) according to the manufacturer’s instruction. cDNA was quantitated with quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) using the Luna Universal qPCR Master Mix (M3003L, NEB). The fold change was calculated on the basis of the unstimulated control. The qPCR primers for each gene are as follows: IFN-β, 5′-GGAGGACGCCGCATTGAC-3′/5′-TGATAGACATTAGCCAGGAGGTTC-3′; ISG54, 5′-CTGCAACCATGAGTGAGAA-3′/5′-CCTTTGAGGTGCTTTAGATAG-3′; ISG56, 5′-TACAGCAACCATGAGTACAA-3′/5′-TCAGGTGTTTCACATAGGC-3′; and GAPDH, 5′-CGGAGTCAACGGATTTGGTCGTA-3′/5′-AGCCTTCTCCATGGTGGTGAAGAC-3′.

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