All constructs were expressed under the control of a cytomegalovirus promotor. HEK293 cells were cultured in Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium with stable glutamine (Biochrom) supplemented with 10% (v/v) fetal bovine serum (FBS Superior; Biochrom), 1 μM all-trans-retinal, and penicillin/streptomycin (100 μg/ml) (Biochrom, Berlin, Germany). Cells were seeded on poly-lysine–coated glass coverslips (1 × 105 cells/ml) and transiently transfected using the FuGENE HD Transfection Reagent (Promega) 28 to 48 hours before measurements.

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