The objective of this research was to investigate the mechanism by which human tumor–derived TGF-β suppresses the immune function of human CD4+ T cells. This research was performed with biological material (tumor effusions and T cells) from patients with cancer, as well as T cells isolated from the peripheral blood of healthy donors. The experimental design consisted of controlled laboratory in vitro studies and ex vivo analyses of patient cells as described. No data were excluded from the analyses. Experiments were performed at least three times using cells from independent human donors. Exact numbers of replicates are stated in the figure legends.

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