Data analysis was completed with Clampfit 10.5 software (Axon Instruments) or GraphPad Prism 7 (GraphPad software). Graphs and statistical analyses for electrophysiology experiments were performed with Origin 7.0 analysis software (OriginLab). Results were expressed as means ± SEM, and SD and numbers in parentheses reflect the number of cells (n). Statistical analyses were completed with either paired t tests for all the results obtained before and after treatment with DAMGO in the same cells or unpaired t tests when data were obtained from different cells. Where appropriate, ANOVA followed by Bonferroni or Sidak’s post hoc test were performed. The criterion for statistical significance was set at P < 0.05 regardless of the method used.

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