RNA was isolated using the RNeasy Mini Kit (QIAGEN). RNA was then reverse-transcribed with Moloney murine leukemia virus reverse transcriptase (Invitrogen), and SYBR Green (Eurogentec) quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed using Mx3000 (Agilent Technologies). Target gene expression is expressed as ratio to housekeeping gene expression. For oligonucleotide sequences, see table S2.

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