Ear biopsy genomic DNA was used for routine genotyping of all mice. All mice were bred and maintained in specific pathogen–free conditions at the Central Biomedical Services facility, University of Cambridge. All procedures performed in studies involving animals were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institution or practice at which the studies were conducted, and all were conducted with approval of the U.K. home office. Gpr35−/− mice were obtained from the Knockout Mouse Project repository (clone ID 646854). Conditional knockout mice were generated by outbreeding the FlpO recombinase mice and then breeding in VillinCre transgene–positive mice. Mice littered at Mendelian ratios and developed normally without any spontaneous disease emerging under specific pathogen–free conditions. Six- to 12-week-old mice that were age- and sex-matched as described in the relevant Materials and Methods sections were used for all experiments unless otherwise stated.

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