Data analysis was performed using GraphPad Prism 7.0 software. Normally distributed raw data were analyzed with either Student’s t test or using one-way ANOVA, and then, Tukey’s posttest was performed to compare all treatment groups. Raw data from non-Gaussian distributions were analyzed with Kruskal-Wallis test, followed by Dunn’s multiple comparisons test to compare all treatment groups. Experiments compared the mean differences between all groups using three-way ANOVA, followed by Tukey-Kramer multiple comparisons using statistical analysis system (SAS). Statistically significant differences were denoted as *P ≤ 0.05, **P < 0.01, and ***P < 0.001.

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