For ex vivo PDX samples, RNA was extracted in TRIzol (Invitrogen) and isolated according to the manufacturer’s protocol. cDNA was generated using an iScript synthesis kit (Bio-Rad) according to the manufacturer’s protocol. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) experiments were run on a Bio-Rad qPCR instrument (CFX384). Data were normalized to glyceraldehyde-phosphate dehydrogenase. A list of all the primers used for reverse transcription qPCR can be found in table S9.

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