Mice were individually housed at 4°C in prechilled cages with minimal bedding and wire cage tops and provided ad libitum access to chow diet and water. Rectal temperatures were recorded just before cold exposure and hourly thereafter with a digital thermometer and probe (EasyView 10, Extech Instruments). For cold adaptation, mice were group-housed in prechilled cages at 4°C (four to five mice per cage) for 48 hours. For thermoneutrality experiments, mice were housed at 30°C for 2 weeks beginning at 8 weeks of age before tissue collection.

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