Differentiated stromal vascular preadipocytes were fixed in 1% paraformaldehyde and stained for the mitochondrial inner membrane protein cytochrome C oxidase subunit 4 (COX4) (ab14744, Abcam) and autophagosome marker LC3 (PM036, MBL International). Confocal images were captured at ×60 magnification, and Mander’s coefficient for colocalization (the portion of COX4 that was also positive for LC3) was calculated for at least 35 cells per group taken from at least 10 different fields and 2 different slides.

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