Total RNA was extracted using the Ambion PureLink RNA Kit (Invitrogen) and reverse transcribed using the SuperScript VILO cDNA synthesis kit (Invitrogen). Real-time PCR was performed using a ViiA-7 real-time PCR system and SYBR-Select Master Mix (Applied Biosystems). Prevalidated primers spanning introns were used for amplification (table S1). Assays were performed in duplicate and normalized to ribosomal protein 36B4 mRNA levels.

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