Total RNA from treated cells was extracted using the Quick-RNA Mini-Prep kit (Zymo), and RNA concentration was determined using a Synergy H1 Hybrid Multi-Mode Microplate Reader (BioTek). Reverse transcription of total RNA was performed using SuperScript III First-Strand Synthesis SuperMix (Thermo Fisher Scientific) according to the manufacturer’s guidelines. qRT-PCR reactions were detected on a CFX384 Touch machine (Bio-Rad) using iQ SYBR Green Supermix (Bio-Rad). RNA expression levels were calculated using the comparative Ct method (2−ΔΔCT) normalized to β-actin. The qRT-PCR primer sets used in this study are listed in table S1.

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