Hemodynamic analysis in vivo was performed as previously described (34, 35). Briefly, mice were anesthetized with avertin, and a 1.4-French micromanometer-tipped catheter (Millar Instruments) was inserted into the right carotid artery and then advanced into the LV. A polyethylene-50 catheter was placed in the left external jugular vein for incremental infusion of isoproterenol. Steady-state LV maximal (dP/dt) was recorded in closed-chest mode throughout the experiment with PowerLab DAQ System (Millar Instruments).

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