PDXs were established from a lung metastasis collected from a breast cancer patient. Preclinical studies were carried out at START (San Antonio, TX) and conducted under International Animal Care and Use Committee–approved protocols. Briefly, tumor fragments were harvested and implanted subcutaneously into the flank of athymic nude mice (Charles River Laboratories). Animals were matched by TV and randomized to control and treatment groups. TV and animal weight data were collected electronically using a digital calliper and scale; tumor dimensions were converted to volume using the formula TV (cubic millimeter) = width2 (square millimeter) × length (millimeter) × 0.52. Study endpoint was a mean control TV of about 1 cm3; change in TV of each group was compared with the control.

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