Female NZW rabbits weighting 4 kg were purchased from Charles River Laboratories. One week before each experiment, a silastic central venous catheter was surgically implanted under general anesthesia into the right jugular vein in the ventrolateral portion of the right side of the neck. The catheter access port exited the body between the shoulder blades and was flushed daily with sterile saline to preserve patency. Animals were injected with MDP (10 or 30 μg/kg) in 1 ml of PBS or with 1 ml of PBS intramuscularly. Rectal body temperature was measured at time 0, then hourly for 8 hours, and at 24-, 48-, and 72-hour time points using a SureTemp Plus thermometer (Welch Allyn). Immediately before each temperature measurement, 4 ml of whole blood was collected via the silastic central venous catheter.

Female αM-deficient mice (B6.129S4-Itgamtm1Myd/J), CD18-deficient mice (B6.129S7-Itgb2tm1Bay/J), and age-matched WT control mice were purchased from the Jackson laboratory. Mice were injected with 1500 μg of MDP in 500 μl of PBS or with 500 μl of PBS as a control intramuscularly using a 25-gauge needle. Two hours after treatment, mice were euthanized, and spleens and livers were collected. Spleens and livers were homogenized using Precellys 24 tissue homogenizer (Bertin Instruments) following the manufacturer’s instructions. Total RNA was isolated using RNeasy Plus Universal Kits per the manufacturer’s protocol. cDNAs were prepared using a Reverse Transcriptase SuperScript VILO (Life Technologies). qPCR was performed using Power SYBR Green (Applied Biosystems) and a QuantStudio 6 Flex Real-Time PCR system (Applied Biosystems). The following primer pairs were used for amplification of mouse COX-2 and β-actin: Cox2 (sense, 5′-GTACAAGCAGTGGCAAAGGC-3′ and antisense, 5′-AGAAGCGTTTGCGGTACTCA-3′) and mβ-actin (sense, 5′-ACTGTCGAGTCGCGTCCA-3′ and antisense, 5′-ATCCATGGCGAACTGGTGG-3′). All experimental procedures were approved by the CBER Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee.

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