All data are shown as means ± SEM of at least three independent experiments. No specific randomization or blinding protocols were used. Figures were prepared using Matlab and Prism 5 (GraphPad Software). Different groups were compared using a two-tailed unpaired Student’s t test, a Mann-Whitney U test, or a Kruskal-Wallis test using Prism 5. Differences with a P value of <0.05 were considered statistically significant: *P < 0.05; **P < 0.005; ***P < 0.001.

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