Total RNA from cells or viruses was extracted with the PureLink RNA Extraction kit (Thermo Fisher Scientific). Viral RNA copies were measured by qRT-PCR (55) with the One Step PrimeScript RT-PCR kit (TaKaRa). ZIKV primers and TaqMan probes were described previously (56). Primers used to amplify corresponding genes were obtained from PrimerBank ( and listed as follows: PARP12, 5′-TTTCAAAGCCTTCGTTCAGA-3′ (forward) and 5′-TTGGTATTGCAGGTTTGCAT-3′ (reverse); GZ01/2016 strain NS1, 5′-GATGCGGTACAGGGGTGTTT-3′ (forward) and 5′-CCCGCAGATACCATCTTCCC-3′ (reverse); NS3, 5′-CTGAGGCCGACAAAGTAGCA-3′ (forward) and 5′-CCGGCAGATGCAACCTGATA-3′ (reverse); GAPDH, 5′-CTGGGCTACACTGAGCACC-3′ (forward) and 5′-AAGTGGTCGTTGAGGGCAATG-3′ (reverse). SYRB Green qPCR mix (TransGen Biotech) was used to analyze mRNA levels on an ABI 7500 (Applied Biosystems) analyzer.

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