Proteins were separated by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and transferred to PVDF (polyvinylidene difluoride) membranes. Membranes were blocked and probed with the indicated primary antibodies. After washing, membranes were incubated with secondary peroxidase-conjugated antibodies. The Immobilon Western Reagents (Millipore Corporation) and the ChemoCam Imager (Intas Science Imaging Instruments GmbH) were used for signal detection. Control STAT3 blots were produced with the same samples on separate gels. Western blotting data were quantified using ImageJ software. Band intensities for pSTAT3 were normalized on the respective unphosphorylated form of the protein.

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