All results are expressed as means ± SD. GraphPad Prism 6 (GraphPad software) was used for statistical calculations. An unpaired two-tailed Student’s t test, a t test with Welch’s correction, or a Mann-Whitney test was used to compare two independent groups. ANOVA with Holm-Šídák multiple comparison test was used to compare three or more groups. *P < 0.05 or **P < 0.01 was considered to be statistically significant.

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